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Theor Appl Genet. 2014 Jan;127(1):1-18. doi: 10.1007/s00122-013-2177-7. Epub 2013 Aug 29.

Copy number polymorphism in plant genomes.

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  • 1Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Noskowskiego 12/14, Poznan, Poland.

Abstract

Copy number variants (CNVs) are genomic rearrangements resulting from gains or losses of DNA segments. Typically, the term refers to rearrangements of sequences larger than 1 kb. This type of polymorphism has recently been shown to be a key contributor to intra-species genetic variation, along with single-nucleotide polymorphisms and short insertion-deletion polymorphisms. Over the last decade, a growing number of studies have highlighted the importance of copy number variation (CNV) as a factor affecting human phenotype and individual CNVs have been linked to risks for severe diseases. In plants, the exploration of the extent and role of CNV is still just beginning. Initial genomic analyses indicate that CNVs are prevalent in plants and have greatly affected plant genome evolution. Many CNV events have been observed in outcrossing and autogamous species. CNVs are usually found on all chromosomes, with CNV hotspots interspersed with regions of very low genetic variation. Although CNV is mainly associated with intergenic regions, many CNVs encompass protein-coding genes. The collected data suggest that CNV mainly affects the members of large families of functionally redundant genes. Thus, the effects of individual CNV events on phenotype are usually modest. Nevertheless, there are many cases in which CNVs for specific genes have been linked to important traits such as flowering time, plant height and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Recent reports suggest that CNVs may form rapidly in response to stress.

PMID:
23989647
[PubMed - in process]
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