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Rejuvenation Res. 2014 Feb;17(1):3-10. doi: 10.1089/rej.2013.1455.

Chromatin changes in reprogramming of mammalian somatic cells.

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  • 1College of Veterinary Medicine, Shaanxi Centre of Stem Cells Engineering and Technology, Key Lab for Animal Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture of China, Northwest A&F University , Yangling, Shaanxi, P.R. China .


Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), cell fusion, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technologies are three strategies that allow reprogramming somatic cells into the pluripotent state; however, the efficiency is low and the mechanisms are not fully clear. In addition, there are reports that changes in chromatin play a critical role in these reprogramming strategies by modulating binding of transcription factors to their targets. In this review, we mainly discuss inactivation of the X chromosome, chromatin decondensation and remodeling, histone modifications, and histone variants in the three strategies. This review will provide an insight for future nuclear reprogramming research.

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