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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Sep 17;110(38):15247-52. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1314715110. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Activation of the canonical IKK complex by K63/M1-linked hybrid ubiquitin chains.

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  • 1Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit and Division of Cell Signaling and Immunology, Sir James Black Centre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, United Kingdom.


Polyubiquitin (pUb) chains formed between the C terminus of ubiquitin and lysine 63 (K63) or methionine 1 (M1) of another ubiquitin have been implicated in the activation of the canonical IκB kinase (IKK) complex. Here, we demonstrate that nearly all of the M1-pUb chains formed in response to interleukin-1, or the Toll-Like Receptors 1/2 agonist Pam3CSK4, are covalently attached to K63-pUb chains either directly as K63-pUb/M1-pUb hybrids or indirectly by attachment to the same protein. Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-associated kinase (IRAK) 1 is modified first by K63-pUb chains to which M1-pUb linkages are added subsequently, and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and IRAK4 are also modified by both K63-pUb and M1-pUb chains. We show that the heme-oxidized IRP2 ubiquitin ligase 1 interacting protein (HOIP) component of the linear ubiquitin assembly complex catalyzes the formation of M1-pUb chains in response to interleukin-1, that the formation of K63-pUb chains is a prerequisite for the formation of M1-pUb chains, and that HOIP interacts with K63-pUb but not M1-pUb linkages. These findings identify K63-Ub oligomers as a major substrate of HOIP in cells where the MyD88-dependent signaling network is activated. The TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-binding protein (TAB) 2 and TAB3 components of the TAK1 complex and the NFκB Essential Modifier (NEMO) component of the canonical IKK complex bind to K63-pUb chains and M1-pUb chains, respectively. The formation of K63/M1-pUb hybrids may therefore provide an elegant mechanism for colocalizing both complexes to the same pUb chain, facilitating the TAK1-catalyzed activation of IKKα and IKKβ. Our study may help to resolve the debate about the relative importance of K63-pUb and M1-pUb chains in activating the canonical IKK complex.


LUBAC; NF-κB; TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6; Ubc13

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