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Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013 Nov;97(22):9647-55. doi: 10.1007/s00253-013-5187-0. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Monitoring of the bacterial and fungal biodiversity and dynamics during Massa Medicata Fermentata fermentation.

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  • 1National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China.


The microbial community dynamics play an important role during Massa Medicata Fermentata (MMF) fermentation. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities were investigated based on the culture-dependent method and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. Meanwhile the dynamic changes of digestive enzyme activities were also examined. Plating results showed that MMF fermentation comprised two stages: pre-fermentation stage (0-4 days) was dominated by bacterial community and post-fermentation stage (5-9 days) was dominated by fungal community. The amount of bacteria reached the highest copy number 1.2 × 10(10) CFU/g at day 2, but the fungi counts reached 6.3 × 10(5) CFU/g at day 9. A total of 170 isolates were closely related to genera Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Mucor, Saccharomyces, Rhodotorula, and Amylomyces. DGGE analysis showed a clear reduction of bacterial and fungal diversity during fermentation, and the dominant microbes belonged to genera Enterobacter, Pediococcus, Pseudomonas, Mucor, and Saccharomyces. Digestive enzyme assay showed filter paper activity; the activities of amylase, carboxymethyl cellulase, and lipase reached a peak at day 4; and the protease activity constantly increased until the end of the fermentation. In this study, we carried out a detailed and comprehensive analysis of microbial communities as well as four digestive enzymes' activities during MMF fermentation process. The monitoring of bacterial and fungal biodiversity and dynamics during MMF fermentation has significant potential for controlling the fermentation process.

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