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Semin Oncol. 2013 Aug;40(4):436-43. doi: 10.1053/j.seminoncol.2013.05.013.

Systemic treatment options for untreated patients with metastatic clear cell renal cancer.

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  • 1Genitourinary Oncology Service, Division of Solid Tumor Oncology, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.


The introduction of therapy targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the mammalian target of rapomycin (mTOR) has significantly improved the outcome of patients with metastatic renal cancer. In this article a comprehensive overview of treatment choices for previously untreated patients with metastatic disease is given. Both established and emerging therapeutic options are discussed, as are prognostic factors predicting outcome.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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