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Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2013 Aug 21;4:97. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2013.00097. eCollection 2013.

Clinical implications of adipocytokines and newly emerging metabolic factors with relation to insulin resistance and cardiovascular health.

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  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division Endocrinology and Metabolism, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital , Seongnam , Korea.


Adipose tissue is known to secrete hormones actively and produces many biologically active proteins called adipocytokines. Typically, obesity is followed by low-grade inflammation, which is characterized by increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Macrophages play a role in the inflammatory process by secreting many cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, resistin, and retinol binding protein-4. These cytokines and chemokines participate in low-grade pro-inflammatory processes leading to insulin resistance, metabolic impairment, and cardiovascular diseases. More metabolic regulators, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21, FGF19, FGF1, vaspin, and visfatin have now been discovered but their exact roles in human diseases are still unclear. This review focuses on recent research regarding the role of adipokines and new metabolic factors in metabolic derangement or cardiovascular disease.


FGFs; adiponectin; biomarker; diabetes mellitus; insulin resistance; new cytokines; obesity

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