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Pediatr Pulmonol. 2014 Jun;49(6):581-8. doi: 10.1002/ppul.22840. Epub 2013 Aug 22.

Clinical and immunological correlates of chest X-ray abnormalities in HIV-infected South African children with limited access to anti-retroviral therapy.

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  • 1Division of Radiodiagnosis, Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.



The chest X-ray (CXR) abnormalities of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in low/middle income countries (LMIC's) have not been well studied.


To describe the CXR abnormalities and associated clinical/immunological features in HIV-infected South African children.


A prospective study of HIV-infected children who underwent baseline chest radiography and clinical and immunological HIV-staging. CXR abnormalities were stratified as grade 1 (mild) or grade 2 (moderate/severe). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses assessed associations between radiological severity and clinical/immunological parameters.


Three hundred thirty children (53% male), median age 23.8 months, were included; 303 (92%) had moderate/severe clinical disease and 225 (68%) moderate/severe immune suppression; 52 (16%) had a normal CXR; 169 (51%) had grade 2 CXR abnormalities, manifesting as: confluent opacification (n = 91, 28%), nodules (n = 37, 11%), or nodules with opacification (n = 41, 12%) Grade 2 abnormality was associated with more advanced clinical HIV disease (OR: 6.9; 95% CI: 1.9-25.6), CD4+ less than 20% (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.0-3.0) and age over 24 months (OR: 4.1; 95% CI: 2.1-8.0).


CXR abnormalities are common in HIV-infected children in LMIC's. The extent of radiological abnormality correlates with age and clinical and immunological severity of HIV-disease.

© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


HIV infection; chest X-ray features; children

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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