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J Saudi Heart Assoc. 2012 Apr;24(2):123-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jsha.2012.02.004. Epub 2012 Feb 16.

Cardiovascular disease in Hajj pilgrims.

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  • 1Intensive Care Department, College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


The changing pattern of hospital admissions during Hajj, the Muslims yearly pilgrimage attracting millions of pilgrims from all around the globe, has gradually seen infectious causes of hospital admission replaced by cardiovascular diseases as a leading cause of both intensive care unit admission and death. While this trend is partly associated with the high quality of medical services and awareness programs targeted at reducing the spread of infections, at the same time it underscores an urgent need to establish a pragmatic system to manage the challenge of cardiovascular morbidities and mortality during Hajj.


A PubMed Central (PMC) literature search without date restrictions was performed for articles reporting on the medical experience during Hajj. There were 109 articles were returned using "Hajj" and "mortality" as search terms. After determining relevance to the current theme based on both direct and indirect reference to the pattern hospital admission during Hajj, 20 articles reporting on conducted studies were obtained. Data from these studies reporting on the pattern and outcome of hospitalization during Hajj were examined and helped in arriving at the conclusions presented in this review.


COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder; Cardiovascular diseases; Hajj; ICU, intensive care units; Makkah; Mortality; Pilgrim; Saudi Arabia

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