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Trends Immunol. 2013 Sep;34(9):423-30. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2013 Aug 16.

Impact of the gut microbiome on mucosal inflammation.

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  • 1National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:


In the past 10 years it has become increasingly apparent that the gut microbiome has profound effects on the immune system to which it is juxtaposed, the mucosal immune system. Here, I explore recent studies in which the effects of the microbiota expand or facilitate anti-inflammatory or regulatory immunological machinery or which favor development of proinflammatory immunological machinery in this system. I then focus on how these opposing processes play out in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); a disease in which normal immune homeostasis is disturbed and inflammation takes hold.

Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Anti-inflammatory organisms; Gut microbiome; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Mucosal regulatory T cells; Proinflammatory (colitogenic organisms)

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