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Environ Pollut. 2013 Nov;182:278-82. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2013.07.024. Epub 2013 Aug 15.

Associations of particulate air pollution and daily mortality in 16 Chinese cities: an improved effect estimate after accounting for the indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin.

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  • 1School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education, Fudan University, P.O. Box 249, 130 Dong-An Road, Shanghai 200032, China; Research Institute for the Changing Global Environment and Fudan Tyndall Centre, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP(3)), Fudan University, Shanghai, China.


People typically spend most of their time indoors. We modeled the daily indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin using a set of exposure parameters, including the fraction of residences with air conditionings (AC), the fraction of time that windows are closed when cooling occurs for buildings with AC, the fractions of time that windows are open or closed for buildings with or without AC, the particle penetration factors, air change rates, and surface removal rate constant of PM10. We calculated the time-weighted average of the simulated indoor PM10 concentration of outdoor origin and the original recorded outdoor PM10 concentration. We then evaluated the acute effects of PM10 using traditional and amended exposure metrics in 16 Chinese cities. Compared with the original estimates, the new effect estimates almost doubled, with improved model fit and attenuated between-city heterogeneity. Conclusively, this proposed exposure assessment approach could improve the effect estimates of ambient particles.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Exposure assessment; Mortality; Particulate matter; Time-series

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