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J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014 Apr;23(4):732-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2013.06.034. Epub 2013 Aug 15.

Vitamin K antagonist-associated intracerebral hemorrhage: lessons from a devastating disease in the dawn of the new oral anticoagulants.

Author information

  • 1Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain. Electronic address: mspin116125@hotmail.com.
  • 2Department of Hematology, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain.
  • 3Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most feared complication associated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). We performed a retrospective study on the clinicoradiologic characteristics that influence its outcome.

METHODS:

We reviewed the clinical histories and neuroimaging studies of all patients attended at the Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias in 2010-2011 who had an ICH while being on VKA and analyzed the differential characteristics between patients with acceptable versus poor outcomes attending to 3 end points: death, poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score ≥ 4) at discharge, and poor outcome 3 months later. Additionally, CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores (validated tools for prediction of the risk of stroke and major hemorrhage, respectively, in patients with atrial fibrillation) were calculated to assess a priori risk-benefit balance for anticoagulant therapy.

RESULTS:

Eighty patients entered the sample (median age of 79 years). A priori annual risk of major bleeding surpassed ischemic stroke risk-without anticoagulation-only in 4. Fifty percent of the patients had an initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score lower than 13; in 51.3%, initial international normalized ratio was above their therapeutic range. Median hematoma size was 24.75 cc(3); relevant growth (≥33%) occurred in 29.4% of patients with a second computed tomography scan. On multivariable analysis, overall in-hospital mortality (47.5%) was related to prior antiplatelet therapy (P = .008), GCS (P = .001), and perilesional edema size (P = .036). Baseline mRS (P = .058) and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (P = .008) were associated with poor outcome at discharge (77.5%). Initial NIHSS (P = .005) and glycemia (P = .038) predicted 3-month poor outcome (68.3%). VKA reversal was performed in almost all patients, which prevented assessment of its therapeutic value.

CONCLUSIONS:

VKA-associated ICH presents in a particularly vulnerable population and has a poor prognosis that may be reliably predicted by several clinicoradiologic features.

Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Intracerebral hemorrhage; anticoagulants; outcome; warfarin-associated intracerebral hemorrhage

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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