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Hepatol Res. 2014 Oct;44(10):E63-E76. doi: 10.1111/hepr.12216. Epub 2013 Sep 12.

Characterization of sporadic acute hepatitis E and comparison of hepatitis E virus genomes in acute hepatitis patients and pig liver sold as food in Mie, Japan.

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  • 1Department of Gastroenterology, Suzuka General Hospital, Suzuka, Japan.



To characterize hepatitis E in Mie prefecture and to investigate whether raw pig liver sold as food in Mie is contaminated with hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains similar to those recovered from patients.


Seventeen patients with sporadic acute hepatitis E treated from 2004 to 2012 were studied. A total of 243 packages of raw pig liver from regional grocery stores were tested for the presence of HEV RNA. The partial genomic sequences of human and swine HEV isolates were determined and subjected to the phylogenetic analyses.


The HEV isolates recovered from the 17 patients segregated into genotype 3 (n = 15) and genotype 4 (n = 2), and 15 genotype 3 isolates further segregated into 3e (n = 11) and 3b (n = 4). Pig liver specimens from 12 (4.9%) of the 243 packages had detectable HEV RNA. All 12 swine HEV isolates were grouped into genotype 3 (3a or 3b). Although no 3e strains were isolated from pig liver specimens, two 3b swine strains were 99.5-100% identical to two HEV strains recovered from hepatitis patients, within 412-nt partial sequences.


The 3e HEV was prevalent among hepatitis E patients. HEV RNA was detected in approximately 5% of pig liver sold as food. The presence of identical HEV strains between hepatitis patients and pig liver indicated that pigs play an important role as reservoirs for HEV in humans in Mie. Further studies are needed to clarify the source of 3e HEV in the animal and environmental reservoirs.

© 2013 The Japan Society of Hepatology.


genotype; hepatitis E; hepatitis E virus; phylogenetic analysis; pig liver

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