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Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Oct;60:218-37. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.07.047. Epub 2013 Jul 29.

Mycotoxins: occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment.

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  • 1Food Technology Dept., UTPV-XaRTA, Agrotecnio Center, University of Lleida, Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain.


Mycotoxins are abiotic hazards produced by certain fungi that can grow on a variety of crops. Consequently, their prevalence in plant raw materials may be relatively high. The concentration of mycotoxins in finished products is usually lower than in raw materials. In this review, occurrence and toxicology of the main mycotoxins are summarised. Furthermore, methodological approaches for exposure assessment are described. Existing exposure assessments, both through contamination and consumption data and biomarkers of exposure, for the main mycotoxins are also discussed.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


15-Ac-DON; 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol; 3-Ac-DON; 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol; 8,9-dihydro-8-(n7-guanyl)-9-hydroxy AFB1; A. alternata f.sp. lycopersici toxins; AAL-toxins; AFB(1); AFB(1)-N7-Gua; AFM(1); AFs; ALT; AME; AOH; ATA; ATX; BEA; BEN; Balkan endemic nephropathy; CER; CYP; DNA; DON; EAs; EFSA; ELEM; ENNs; EU; European Food Safety Authority; European Union; Exposure; FAO; FAPY, AFB(1)-formamidopyrimidine; FB(1); FBs; FUS; Food; Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations; HCC; HT-2 toxin; HT2; IARC; International Agency for Research on Cancer; Iso-TeA; JECFA; Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives; LC–ESI-MS/MS; LD50; LOD; LOQ; MON; Mycotoxins; NOEL; NTD; OTA; OTα; Occurrence; PAT; PMTDI; PPE; PTDIs; Phe; RASFF; RNA; Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed; SCF; Sa; T-2 toxin; T2; TDI; TDS; TEN; TeA; Toxicology; WHO; World Health Organization; ZEN; a(w); aflatoxin B(1); aflatoxin M(1); aflatoxins; alernuene; alimentary toxic aleukia; alternariol; alternariol monomethyl ether; altertoxins; beauvericin; body weight; bw; cytochrome P-450; deoxynivalenol; deoxyribonucleic acid; enniatins; enzyme ceramide; equine leukoencephalomalacia; ergot alkaloids; fumonisin B(1); fumonisins B(1), B(2) and B(3); fusaproliferin; hepatocellular carcinoma; iso-tenuazonic acid; lethal dose 50%; limit of detection; limit of quantification; liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry; moniliformin; neural tube defects; non observed effect level; ochratoxin A; ochratoxin α; patulin; phenylalanine; porcine pulmonary oedema; provisional maximum tolerable daily intake; provisional tolerable daily intakes; ribonucleic acid; scientific committee on food So, sphingosine; sphinganine; tentoxin; tenuazonic acid; tolerable daily intake; total diet studies; water activity; zearalenone

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