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Ann Thorac Surg. 2013 Oct;96(4):1203-8. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.05.026. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

Efficacy and complications of computed tomography-guided hook wire localization.

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  • 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Toranomon Hospital, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:



Video-assisted thoracic surgery offers a minimally invasive method for diagnosing and treating small pulmonary lesions, although the localization of these lesions is sometimes problematic. Various localization methods have been reported but few studies have described their efficacy and adverse events.


We performed computed tomography (CT)-guided localization using a hook wire in 417 patients with 500 lesions treated between January 2006 and December 2010.


We located 178 lesions with a ground-glass opacity component and 322 solid lesions. The solid lesions had smaller tumor diameters and were located further from the pleura. Tumor depth to size ratio was 0.9 ± 0.9 for the lesions with a ground-glass opacity component and 1.8 ± 1.5 for the solid lesions (p < 0.001). Pneumothorax requiring aspiration was observed in 4.6% patients, and hemoptysis and pulmonary hematoma was observed in 10.3%. Systemic air embolism with no sequelae and spontaneous resolution occurred in a patient (0.24%). The morbidity rate was 15.1%. Male patients, patients who had undergone multiple localization, and heavy smokers were at a higher risk of pneumothorax requiring aspiration. Insertion distance more than 25 mm was a risk factor for hemoptysis and pulmonary hematoma (p < 0.001). Procedure duration per lesion was 14 ± 5 minutes. Dislodgement occurred in 2 patients (0.4%).


The safety, reliability, and convenience of CT-guided hook wire localization are acceptable. Localization for lesions with a ground-glass opacity component may be performed when the lesions are relatively large and shallow. Insertion distances greater than 25 mm are associated with a risk of pulmonary hematoma and hemoptysis.

Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.



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