Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
PLoS One. 2013 Jul 24;8(7):e68710. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068710. Print 2013.

Growth inhibition and apoptosis induction by (+)-Cyanidan-3-ol in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pharmacy, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Himachal Pradesh, India.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of (+)-cyanidan-3-ol (CD-3) in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and chemopreventive potential against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Balb/c mice. The HepG2 cell line was treated with CD-3 at various concentrations and the proliferation of the HepG2 cells was measure by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), sulforhodamine B (SRB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 (HO), Acridine orange/ethylene dibromide (AO/EB) staining, DNA fragmentation analysis and the apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry. The HCC tumor model was established in mice by injecting N-nitrosodiethylamine/carbon tetrachloride (NDEA/CCl4) and the effect of CD-3 on tumor growth in-vivo was studied. The levels of liver injury markers, tumor markers, and oxidative stress were measured. The expression levels of apoptosis-related genes in in-vitro and in vivo models were determined by RT-PCR and ELISA. The CD-3 induced cell death was considered to be apoptotic by observing the typical apoptotic morphological changes under fluorescent microscopy and DNA fragmentation analysis. Annexin V/PI assay demonstrated that apoptosis increased with increase in the concentration of CD-3. The expression levels of apoptosis-related genes that belong to bcl-2 and caspase family were increased and AP-1 and NF-κB activities were significantly suppressed by CD-3. Immunohistochemistry data revealed less localization of p53, p65 and c-jun in CD-3 treated tumors as compared to localization in NDEA/CCl4 treated tumors. Taken together, our data demonstrated that CD-3 could significantly inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells in-vitro and suppress HCC tumor growth in-vivo by apoptosis induction.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk