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Psychiatry Res. 2013 Dec 15;210(2):626-33. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.07.001. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (version 4.0) factorial structure and its sensitivity in the treatment of outpatients with unipolar depression.

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  • 1University Department of Mental Health and Psychiatry, HUG, CAPPI Pâquis Secteur 4, 67 rue de Lausanne, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: adriano.zanello@hcuge.ch.


The 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, version 4.0) enables the rater to measure psychopathology severity. Still, little is known about the BPRS's reliability and validity outside of the psychosis spectrum. The aim of this study was to examine the factorial structure and sensitivity to change of the BPRS in patients with unipolar depression. Two hundred and forty outpatients with unipolar depression were administered the 24-item BPRS. Assessments were conducted at intake and at post-treatment in a Crisis Intervention Centre. An exploratory factor analysis of the 24-item BPRS produced a six-factor solution labelled "Mood disturbance", "Reality distortion", "Activation", "Apathy", "Disorganization", and "Somatization". The reduction of the total BPRS score and dimensional scores, except for "Activation", indicates that the 24-item BPRS is sensitive to change as shown in patients that appeared to have benefited from crisis treatment. The findings suggest that the 24-item BPRS could be a useful instrument to measure symptom severity and change in symptom status in outpatients presenting with unipolar depression.

© 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


BPRS; Crisis Intervention Centre; Depression

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