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Hematol Rep. 2013 Jun 28;5(2):34-5. doi: 10.4081/hr.2013.e10. Print 2013 Jun 28.

Pneumothorax in an early phase after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

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  • 1Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo.


Pneumothorax is very rare after early phase of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and usually accompanied with pulmonary chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), such as bronchiolitis obliterans and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. The present study describes the case of a seventeen-year-old male diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Pneumothorax occurred at day 43 after BMT. Pneumothorax occurred in early phase of HSCT is extremely rare. The early onset of acute GVHD and the entity of cytomegalovirus might worsen the pulmonary tissue damages for the onset of pneumothorax, indicating that we should be aware of the possibility to occur pneumothorax even in the early period after allogeneic HSCT.


air-leak syndrome; allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; pneumothorax

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