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World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Jul 14;19(26):4155-65. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i26.4155.

Reversal of multidrug resistance in gastric cancer cells by CDX2 downregulation.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

Abstract

AIM:

To explore the role of CDX2 in the multi-drug resistance (MDR) process of gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo.

METHODS:

A cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cell line with stable downregulation of CDX2 was established. mRNA and protein expression levels of CDX2, survivin, cyclin D1, and c-Myc were detected by western blotting and semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The influence of downregulation of CDX2 on MDR was assessed by measuring IC50 of SGC7901/DDP cells to cisplatin, doxorubicin, and 5-fluorouracil, rate of doxorubicin efflux, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression detected by flow cytometry. In addition, we determined the in vivo effects of CDX2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) on tumor size, and apoptotic cells in tumor tissues were detected by deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling and hematoxylin and eosin staining.

RESULTS:

CDX2 siRNA led to downregulation of endogenous CDX2 mRNA (0.31 ± 0.05 vs 1.10 ± 0.51, 0.31 ± 0.05 vs 1.05 ± 0.21, P = 0.003) and protein (0.12 ± 0.08 vs 0.51 ± 0.07, 0.12 ± 0.08 vs 0.55 ± 0.16, P = 2.57 × 10(-4)) expression. It significantly promoted the sensitivity of SGC7901/DDP cells to cisplatin (0.12 ± 0.05 vs 0.33 ± 0.08, 0.12 ± 0.05 vs 0.39 ± 0.15, P = 0.001), doxorubicin (0.52 ± 0.13 vs 4.11 ± 1.25, 0.52 ± 0.13 vs 4.05 ± 1.44, P = 2.81 × 10(-4)), and 5-fluorouracil (0.82 ± 0.13 vs 2.81 ± 0.51, 0.82 ± 0.13 vs 3.28 ± 1.03, P = 1.71 × 10(-4)). Flow cytometry confirmed that the percentage of apoptotic cells increased after CDX2 downregulation (32.15% ± 2.15% vs 17.63% ± 3.16%, 32.15% ± 2.15% vs 19.3% ± 2.25%, P = 1.73 × 10(-6)). This notion was further supported by the observation that downregulation of CDX2 blocked entry into the S-phase of the cell cycle (31.53% ± 3.78% vs 65.05% ± 7.25%, 31.53% ± 3.78% vs 62.27% ± 5.02%, P = 7.55 × 10(-7)). Furthermore, downregulation of CDX2 significantly increased intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin (0.21 ± 0.06 vs 0.41 ± 0.11, 0.21 ± 0.06 vs 0.40 ± 0.08, P = 0.003). In molecular studies, semiquantitative RT-PCR and western blotting revealed that CDX2 downregulation could inhibit expression of c-Myc, survivin and cyclin D1.

CONCLUSION:

CDX2 may be involved in regulating multiple signaling pathways in reversing MDR, suggesting that CDX2 may represent a novel target for gastric cancer therapy.

KEYWORDS:

Drug resistance; Gastric cancer; Homeobox gene CDX2; Murine model; RNA interference

PMID:
23864778
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3710417
Free PMC Article
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