Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Chemosphere. 2013 Oct;93(6):963-71. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.05.062. Epub 2013 Jul 12.

Evaluation of phenanthrene toxicity on earthworm (Eisenia fetida): an ecotoxicoproteomics approach.

Author information

  • 1College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, People's Republic of China.


The goal of this study was to identify promising new biomarkers of phenanthrene by identifying differentially expressed proteins in Eisenia fetida after exposure to phenanthrene. Extracts of earthworm epithelium collected at days 2, 7, 14, and 28 after phenanthrene exposure were analyzed by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and quantitative image analysis. Comparing the intensity of protein spots, 36 upregulated proteins and 45 downregulated proteins were found. Some of the downregulated and upregulated proteins were verified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and database searching. Downregulated proteins in response to phenanthrene exposure were involved in glycolysis, energy metabolism, chaperones, proteolysis, protein folding and electron transport. In contrast, oxidation reduction, oxygen transport, defense systems response to pollutant, protein biosynthesis and fatty acid biosynthesis were upregulated in phenanthrene-treated E. fetida. In addition, ATP synthase b subunit, lysenin-related protein 2, lombricine kinase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, actinbinding protein, and extracellular globin-4 seem to be potential biomarkers since these biomarker were able to low levels (2.5 mg kg(-1)) of phenanthrene. Our study provides a functional profile of the phenanthrene-responsive proteins in earthworms. The variable levels and trends in these spots could play a potential role as novel biomarkers for monitoring the levels of phenanthrene contamination in soil ecosystems.

Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Biomarkers; Eisenia fetida; MALDI-TOF MS/MS; Phenanthrene; Proteomics

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk