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Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:961957. doi: 10.1155/2013/961957. Epub 2013 Jun 18.

Toward a theory of the primo vascular system: a hypothetical circulatory system at the subcellular level.

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  • 1Ki Primo Research Laboratory, Division of Electrical Engineering, KAIST Institute for Information Technology Convergence, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea.


This paper suggests a theoretical framework for the primo vascular system (PVS), a hypothetical circulatory system, in which extracellular DNA microvesicles interact to form and break down cell structures. Since Bonghan Kim reported the existence of Bonghan ducts and the SNU research team reinvestigated and named it the PVS, there has been series of studies trying to examine its structure and functions. In this paper, we hypothesize that the PVS is the network system in which extracellular DNA microvesicles circulate and interact at the subcellular level, forming and breaking down cell structures. This idea integrates A. B├ęchamp's idea of microzymas and Bonghan Kim's idea of sanals. A proof of this idea may complement modern medical theory, perhaps providing an essential clue for an alternative solution dealing with modern healthcare problem.

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