Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Phytochemistry. 2013 Nov;95:127-34. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.06.023. Epub 2013 Jul 10.

Changes in the abscisic acid levels and related gene expression during fruit development and ripening in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.).

Author information

  • 1Department of Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland. Electronic address:


Abscisic acid (ABA) is a natural plant hormone playing an important role in many physiological processes including fruit ripening and is also recently found to be potential for biomedical applications. This study was aimed to measure ABA levels and its biosynthesis in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), which is one of the best sources of anthocyanins. Five ABA biosynthetic genes were isolated from bilberry and their expression profiles were studied in bilberry tissues, particularly during berry development. The level of ABA highly increased at the onset of bilberry fruit ripening, at the stage when expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase (VmCHS) and anthocyanidin synthase (VmANS), also increased. In fully ripe berries and leaves, ABA levels were lower but none was detected in bilberry stem or rhizome. The expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VmNCED1) and putative neoxanthin synthase (VmNSY) was high in berry tissues and their expression increased markedly at the onset of berry ripening along with the accumulation of ABA. In contrast, the expression of zeaxanthin epoxidase (VmZEP), short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (VmSDR/ABA2) and aldehyde oxidase (VmAO) were most highly associated with leaf tissues with no obvious relation to ABA content during berry development. The obtained results indicate that the ABA biosynthesis may play an important role in the regulation of ripening of non-climacteric bilberry fruits through transcriptional regulation of key ABA biosynthetic genes.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


9-Cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED); Abscisic acid (ABA); Aldehyde oxidase (AO); Berry ripening; Biosynthesis; Ericaceae; European blueberry; Neoxanthin synthase (NSY); Vaccinium myrtillus

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk