Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Oncotarget. 2013 Jan 27;4(1):153-62. Print 2013 Jan.

Targeted therapy of advanced gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinoma with aggressive biology: eliciting early response signals from phase 1 trials.

Author information

  • 1Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.



Patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and gallbladder carcinoma (GC) have few therapeutic options for relapsed disease.


Given the overall poor prognosis in this population and the availability of novel targeted therapies, we systematically analyzed the characteristics and outcomes for GC and CC patients treated on phase I trials with an emphasis on targeted agents and locoregional therapies.


Of 40 treated patients (GC=6; CC=34; median age, 60 years), 8 (20%) had stable disease (SD) > 6 months, 3 (8%) partial response (PR), on protocols with hepatic arterial drug infusion and anti-angiogenic, anti-HER-2/neu or novel MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors. Median progression-free survival (PFS) on phase I trials was 2.0 months (95% CI 1.7, 2.8) versus 3.0 months (95% CI 2.4, 5.0), 3.0 months (95% CI 2.3, 4.6), and 3.0 months (95% CI 2.4, 3.9) for their first-, second-, and last-line FDA-approved therapy. In univariate analysis, >3 metastatic sites, elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (>56IU/L), serum creatinine (>1.6mg/dL), and CA19-9 (>35U/mL) were associated with a shorter PFS. Mutational analysis revealed mutation in the KRAS oncogene in 2 of 11 patients (18%). The SD >6 months/PR rate of 28% was seen with hepatic arterial infusion of oxaliplatin, and inhibitors of angiogenesis, HER-2/neu or MEK.


The PFS in phase I trials was similar to that of the first, second, and last-line therapy (P=0.95, 0.98, 0.76, respectively) with FDA-approved agents given in the advanced setting, emphasizing a role for targeted agents in a clinical trials setting as potentially valuable therapeutic options for these patients.


cholangiocarcinoma; gallbladder carcinoma; locoregional therapy; phase I; targeted therapy

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk