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Vaccine. 2013 Aug 28;31(38):4121-8. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.06.074. Epub 2013 Jul 8.

Prime-boost vaccination with recombinant H5-fowlpox and Newcastle disease virus vectors affords lasting protection in SPF Muscovy ducks against highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus.

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  • 1Anses (French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health Safety), Ploufragan/Plouzan√© Laboratory, Avian and Rabbit Virology Immunology and Parasitology Unit (VIPAC), B.P. 53, 22440 Ploufragan, France.


Vaccination protocols were evaluated in one-day old Muscovy ducklings, using an experimental Newcastle disease recombinant vaccine (vNDV-H5) encoding an optimized synthetic haemagglutinin gene from a clade 2.2.1 H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV), either as a single administration or as a boost following a prime inoculation with a fowlpox vectored vaccine (vFP89) encoding a different H5 HP haemagglutinin from an Irish H5N8 strain. These vaccination schemes did not induce detectable levels of serum antibodies in HI test using a clade 2.2.1 H5N1 antigen, and only induced H5 ELISA positive response in less than 10% of vaccinated ducks. However, following challenge against a clade 2.2.1 HPAIV, both protocols afforded full clinical protection at six weeks of age, and full protection against mortality at nine weeks. Only the prime-boost vaccination (vFP89+vNDV-H5) was still fully protecting Muscovy ducks against disease and mortality at 12 weeks of age. Reduction of oropharyngeal shedding levels was also constantly observed from the onset of the follow-up at 2.5 or three days post-infection in vaccinated ducks compared to unvaccinated controls, and was significantly more important for vFP89+vNDV-H5 vaccination than for vNDV-H5 alone. Although the latter vaccine is shown immunogenic in one-day old Muscovy ducks, the present work is original in demonstrating the high efficacy of the successive administration of two different vector vaccines encoding two different H5 in inducing lasting protection (at least similar to the one induced by an inactivated reassortant vaccine, Re-5). In addition, such a prime-boost schedule allows implementation of a DIVA strategy (to differentiate vaccinated from infected ducks) contrary to Re-5, involves easy practice on the field (with injection at the hatchery and mass vaccination later on), and should avoid eventual interference with NDV maternally derived antibodies. Last, the HA insert could be updated according to the epidemiological situation.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Fowlpox; Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza; Muscovy ducks; Newcastle disease virus; Protection

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