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Ergonomics. 2013;56(9):1451-64. doi: 10.1080/00140139.2013.816376. Epub 2013 Jul 12.

Analysis of the facial measurements of Korean Air Force pilots for oxygen mask design.

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  • 1a Department of Industrial and Management Engineering , Pohang University of Science and Technology , Gyeongbuk , 790-784 , Republic of Korea.


This study measured the facial dimensions of Korean Air Force (KAF) pilots, to design a pilot oxygen mask, and compared them with those of Korean civilians and US Air Force (USAF) personnel. Twenty-two facial dimensions were measured for 278 KAF male pilots (KMP) and 58 KAF female pilots and cadets (KFP) using an anthropometer and a three-dimensional scanner. The KMP face measurements were found to be significantly larger (mean difference, [Formula: see text] = 0.7-26.5 mm) and less varied (ratio of SDs = 0.29-0.82) than those of Korean male civilians. The average face length, lip width and nasal root breadth of the KMP were significantly longer ([Formula: see text] = 4.7 mm), narrower ([Formula: see text] = -2.4 mm), and wider ([Formula: see text] = 5.2 mm), respectively, than those of USAF male personnel. Lastly, the KMP face measurements were significantly larger ([Formula: see text] = 1.8-26.1 mm) than those of the KFP.


The face measurements of KAF pilots were collected and compared with those of Korean civilians and USAF personnel. The distinct facial features of the populations identified in this study are applicable to custom design of an oxygen mask for prevention of excessive pressure and oxygen leakage.

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