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Beilstein J Org Chem. 2013 Jun 18;9:1170-8. doi: 10.3762/bjoc.9.131. Print 2013.

Establishing the concept of aza-[3 + 3] annulations using enones as a key expansion of this unified strategy in alkaloid synthesis.

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  • 1Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705, USA.


A successful enone version of an intramolecular aza-[3 + 3] annulation reaction is described here. Use of piperidinium trifluoroacetate salt as the catalyst and toluene as the solvent appears to be critical for a successful annulation. We also demonstrated for the first time that microwave irradiation can accelerate aza-[3 + 3] annulation reactions. An attempt to expand the scope of the enone aza-[3 + 3] annulation was made in the form of propyleine synthesis as a proof of concept. While synthesis of the enone annulation precursor was successfully accomplished, the annulation proved to be challenging and was only modestly successful.


N-heterocycles; alkaloids synthesis; catalysis; enones; intramolecular aza-[3 + 3] annulation; natural product; vinylogous amides

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