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Radiographics. 2013 Jul-Aug;33(4):1037-52. doi: 10.1148/rg.334115084.

Cardiovascular MR imaging after surgical correction of tetralogy of Fallot: approach based on understanding of surgical procedures.

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  • 1Department of Radiology, University Hospital of California, Box 0628, 505 Parnassus Ave, Room L-325A, San Francisco, CA 94143-0252, USA.


Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is one of the most common congenital heart diseases for which patients are referred for postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging evaluation. The most common surgical procedures for TOF repair include infundibulectomy, transannular pulmonary artery patch repair, and right ventricle-pulmonary artery conduit placement. In the past few decades, surgery has proved successful, but most patients require repeat imaging throughout their lives. MR imaging is now frequently used for morphologic and functional evaluation after TOF repair. The most common late postoperative sequelae and residual lesions include right ventricular outflow tract aneurysm and dyskinesis, conduit failure, pulmonary regurgitation, tricuspid regurgitation, right ventricular failure, residual main and branch pulmonary artery stenosis, branch pulmonary artery aneurysm, left pulmonary artery kinking, and residual or recurrent ventricular septal defect. The imaging approach for the evaluation of patients with repaired TOF should be guided by the surgical procedure used and the complications that are expected. Knowledge of the most common postoperative problems and their cardiovascular MR imaging appearances is essential for good radiology practice in this clinical setting.

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