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Nat Med. 2013 Jul;19(7):829-36. doi: 10.1038/nm.3225.

Induced regeneration--the progress and promise of direct reprogramming for heart repair.

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  • 1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Institute for Regenerative Medicine and Cardiovascular Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.


Regeneration of cardiac tissue has the potential to transform cardiovascular medicine. Recent advances in stem cell biology and direct reprogramming, or transdifferentiation, have produced powerful new tools to advance this goal. In this Review we examine key developments in the generation of new cardiomyocytes in vitro as well as the exciting progress that has been made toward in vivo reprogramming of cardiac tissue. We also address controversies and hurdles that challenge the field.

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