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Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013 Jul;3(7):515-22. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60106-9.

The emergence of drug resistant HIV variants and novel anti-retroviral therapy.

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  • 1Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


After its identification in 1980s, HIV has infected more than 30 million people worldwide. In the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, anti-retroviral drug resistance results from insufficient anti-retroviral pressure, which may lead to treatment failure. Preliminary studies support the idea that anti-retroviral drug resistance has evolved largely as a result of low-adherence of patients to therapy and extensive use of anti-retroviral drugs in the developed world; however, a highly heterogeneous horde of viral quasi-species are currently circulating in developing nations. Thus, the prioritizing of strategies adopted in such two worlds should be quite different considering the varying anti-retroviral drug resistance prevalence. In this article, we explore differences in anti-retroviral drug resistance patterns between developed and developing countries, as they represent two distinct ecological niches of HIV from an evolutionary standpoint.


Developed world; Developing world; Drug resistance; Evolution; HIV infection

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