Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Br J Radiol. 2013 Aug;86(1028):20130163. doi: 10.1259/bjr.20130163. Epub 2013 Jul 5.

Effects of a difference in respiratory cycle between treatment planning and irradiation for phase-controlled rescanning and carbon pencil beam scanning.

Author information

  • 1Medical Physics Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan.



To evaluate the impact of variation in respiratory cycle between treatment planning and irradiation for pencil beam scanning and phase-controlled rescanning (PCR) on the resulting dose distribution, we conducted a simulation study based on four-dimensional CT (4DCT) data for lung cancer patients.


4DCT data were acquired for seven patients with lung tumours. Treatment planning was designed to ensure the delivery of 95% of the prescribed dose to the clinical target volume in respective phases of the 4DCT by taking account of intrafractional beam range variations. Carbon ion pencil beam scanning dose distributions were calculated for various respiratory cycles that differed from the reference respiration (=4.4 s) but which stayed regular during irradiation. The number of rescannings was changed to 1, 4 or 8 times. PCR was correlated with the gating window in treatment planning to calculate the beam weighting map.


8×PCR improved dose conformation to the target for all irradiation respiratory cycles. Minimum dose (Dmin) and lowest dose encompassing 95% of the target (D95) values with 4×PCR were decreased from 94.1% and 98.1% to 88.4% and 93.5% with an altered irradiation respiratory cycle of 2.4 s. However, these values were improved with 8×PCR to over 94.9% for Dmin and 98.6% for D95 for respective irradiation respiratory cycles.


Pencil beam scanning treatment with eight or more PCRs consistently improved dose conformation for moving lung targets even when different respiratory cycles were used for treatment planning and irradiation.


Scanning treatment with eight or more rescannings consistently improved dose homogeneity to a moving target even though respiratory cycles varied during treatment.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk