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Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2013 Sep;57(5):486-92. doi: 10.1007/s10384-013-0253-9. Epub 2013 Jul 5.

Effects of interpupillary distance on stereoacuity: the Frisby Davis distance stereotest versus a 3-dimensional distance stereotest.

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  • 1Department of Ophthalmology, Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 80 Guro-dong, Guro-gu, Seoul, 152-703, South Korea.



To evaluate the effect of interpupillary distance (IPD) on stereoacuity using 2 kinds of stereoacuity tests in a normal population.


The distance stereoacuities of 33 healthy volunteers with no evidence of ocular diseases were measured with the Frisby Davis distance (FD2) stereotest and a 3-dimensional monitor-based distance stereotest (distance 3-D stereotest). These 2 kinds of stereotests were repeated using horizontal periscopes to increase the IPD 2- and 3-fold in order to investigate the effect of IPD increase on stereoacuity.


The mean age of the participants was 28.5 years (range 20-41 years). The mean logarithms of the individual minimum angle of stereodiscrimination (logMAS) were 1.04 ± 0.23 (range 0.70-1.48 logMAS) with the FD2 stereotest and 1.52 ± 0.19 (range 1.00-1.85 logMAS) with the distance 3-D stereotest. As the IPD increased 2- and 3-fold, the logMAS measured with the FD2 stereotest improved from 1.04 to 0.98 and 0.91 (P = 0.061 and P = 0.003), respectively, and those measured with the distance 3-D stereotest worsened from 1.52 to 1.73 and 1.85 (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001), respectively.


Changes in IPD measured with the FD2 stereotest exhibited opposite effects to those measured with the distance 3-D stereotest. This reflects what is known to happen in the real world, i.e., that stereoacuity improves as IPD increases.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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