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Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Aug;25(4):327-31. doi: 10.1097/GCO.0b013e3283630de9.

Standardized training programmes for advanced laparoscopic gynaecological surgery.

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  • 1Division of Gynecologic Oncology, St. Maria Hospital, University of Perugia, Terni, Italy.



To provide an overview of the available evidence on the role of the different methods in laparoscopic training, and to summarize the results obtained with standardized training programmes in advanced laparoscopic gynaecological surgery.


Box trainers as well as virtual reality simulators ensure a benefit in terms of surgical skills development. No data are available showing superiority of one method compared to another. Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS) remains the most widely used and established scoring system to assess the acquired laparoscopic abilities, also in the field of advanced gynaecological surgery. Standardized training programmes have been recognized as reliable tools able to improve the development of surgical skills, particularly for innovative surgical techniques, such as laparoscopic endoscopic single-site surgery.


The traditional approach based on observing and assisting needs to be updated incorporating box trainers and virtual reality simulators. The development of innovative training methods, integrating box trainers and virtual reality simulators, represents the future horizon. All tertiary centres involved in advanced laparoscopic gynaecological surgery should contribute to the development of an integrated network of standardized training programmes, in order to ensure a high-quality laparoscopic training to gynaecologists.

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