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Am Heart J. 2013 Jul;166(1):150-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.03.016. Epub 2013 May 1.

Cardiovascular risk factor burden, treatment, and control among adults with chronic kidney disease in the United States.

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  • 1Department of Epidemiology and Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.



Cardiovascular disease is a major concern in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We assessed the current burden of cardiovascular risk factors and differences in risk factor treatment and control in the general US adult population by CKD status.


A cross-sectional study of 10,741 adults aged 20+ years from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was performed. Persons were categorized into 3 groups: CKD stages 3 to 5 (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), CKD stages 1 and 2 (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g and estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), and no CKD.


The majority of adults with CKD stages 3 to 5 (79.8%) and stages 1 and 2 (59.1%) had ≥2 cardiovascular risk factors, substantially higher than adults without CKD (32.7%, P < .001). Diabetes was the most strongly associated risk factor and was highly specific for CKD stages 1 and 2 (prevalence ratio 2.53, 95% CI 2.21-2.89) and, to a lesser extent, CKD stages 3 to 5 (prevalence ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.38-1.84). Most adults with diagnosed risk factors reported medication use for risk factor control, and pharmacologic treatment was more common among those with than without CKD. However, poor risk factor control was also common among persons treated for risk factors with CKD compared with those without CKD.


There continues to be a substantial cardiovascular risk factor burden among adults with CKD stages 3 to 5 and, to a lesser extent, adults with CKD stages 1 and 2 when compared with adults without CKD. Overall, optimal risk factor control is low in adults with CKD, highlighting the need for aggressive cardiovascular risk reduction in adults with CKD.

Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

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