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Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2013 Nov-Dec;57(3):403-10. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2013.06.002. Epub 2013 Jun 24.

Developing and validating a Japanese version of the Assessment of Pain in Elderly People with Communication Impairment.

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  • 1Graduate School of Health Sciences, Gunma University, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi-shi, Gunma 371-8511, Japan. yukayukarinrin@hotmail.com


This study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the Assessment of Pain in Elderly People with Communication Impairment (PACSLAC-J) and evaluate the validity and reliability of the scale for use in older patients with dementia in Japan. All patients from 2 dementia wards at a geriatric hospital and 2 aged care facilities were asked to participate. Demographic data, medical prescriptions, Behavior Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD) score, and PACSLAC-J score were obtained from the patients or their medical charts. Researchers used the PACSLAC-J to assess pain behaviors while the patients walked or were transferred between a bed and a wheelchair. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for inter-rater and test-retest reliability, Cronbach's alpha, and correlations between PACSLAC-J score and other variables were examined. A total of 117 older patients participated. Dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (n=54) and/or vascular dementia (n=35), had been diagnosed in almost all of them. The ICC for inter-rater and test-retest reliability were 0.917 and 0.600, respectively. Internal consistency of the entire sample was 0.782. Patients who stated they were experienced pain during movement had higher scores than did patients who stated they had no pain during movement. PACSLAC-J total score was not associated with BEHAVE-AD score. Multiple regression analysis showed that total dependence on assistance during transfer (β=0.32, p=0.001), and psychiatric medication prescription (β=0.26, p=0.003) were independently associated with PACSLAC-J score. We found sufficient evidence of the validity and reliability of the PACSLAC-J.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Assessment; Dementia; Instrument development; Observational tool; Older adult; Pain

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