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Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013 Aug;77(8):1350-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2013.05.033. Epub 2013 Jun 24.

Validation of the Mandarin version of the LittlEARS® Auditory Questionnaire.

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  • 1Key Laboratory of Speech and Hearing Sciences, East China Normal University, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China.



To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Mandarin version of the LittlEARS(®)Auditory Questionnaire and to compare the parameters with those of the original German version of the questionnaire. The results would indicate whether the Mandarin version of the questionnaire can be applied in Mandarin speaking children or not.


A "back-translation" method was used to translate and adapt the LittlEARS(®) Auditory Questionnaire into Mandarin. A group of 157 Mandarin speaking parents of children below 24 months of age with normal hearing completed the LittlEARS(®) Auditory Questionnaire. Various psychometric analyses (scale analysis and item analysis) were conducted and compared with the original German version.


The following scale characteristics were found with the above sample: internal consistency: Cronbach's alpha = 0.945; reliability: split-half r = 0.914; predictive accuracy: Guttman's lambda = 0.882; correlation between overall score and age of the children: r = 0.841. Several parameters (correlation between age and item score, index of difficulty, discrimination coefficient) of each item were also calculated. The regression curve, which reflects the age-dependence of auditory behavior, was produced. All parameters above had no significant differences with the corresponding ones of the original German version. Standardized values (expected and minimum values) of the Mandarin LittlEARS(®) Auditory Questionnaire were provided.


The Mandarin version of the LittlEARS(®) Auditory Questionnaire is reliable and valid as a sensitive tool to assess the development of auditory behavior in Mandarin speaking children up to 24 months of age. The Mandarin standardized values are helpful for clinicians to reach a preliminary judgment in children's hearing screening or for parents to monitor the auditory development of their hearing-impaired children.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Auditory development; Hearing impairment; Infants and toddlers; LittlEARS(®) Auditory Questionnaire; Psychometric property

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