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J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Aug;132(2):336-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2013.04.052. Epub 2013 Jun 24.

Severe adult-onset asthma: A distinct phenotype.

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  • 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. M.Amelink@amc.nl

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Some patients with adult-onset asthma have severe disease, whereas others have mild transient disease. It is currently unknown whether patients with severe adult-onset asthma represent a distinct clinical phenotype.

OBJECTIVE:

We sought to investigate whether disease severity in patients with adult-onset asthma is associated with specific phenotypic characteristics.

METHODS:

One hundred seventy-six patients with adult-onset asthma were recruited from 1 academic and 3 nonacademic outpatient clinics. Severe refractory asthma was defined according to international Innovative Medicines Initiative criteria, and mild-to-moderate persistent asthma was defined according to Global Initiative for Asthma criteria. Patients were characterized with respect to clinical, functional, and inflammatory parameters. Unpaired t tests and χ(2) tests were used for group comparisons; both univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with disease severity.

RESULTS:

Apart from the expected high symptom scores, poor quality of life, need for high-intensity treatment, low lung function, and high exacerbation rate, patients with severe adult-onset asthma were more often nonatopic (52% vs 34%, P = .02) and had more nasal symptoms and nasal polyposis (54% vs 27%, P ≤ .001), higher exhaled nitric oxide levels (38 vs 27 ppb, P = .02) and blood neutrophil counts (5.3 vs 4.0 10(9)/L, P ≤ .001) and sputum eosinophilia (11.8% vs 0.8%, P ≤ .001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that increased blood neutrophil (odds ratio, 10.9; P = .002) and sputum eosinophil (odds ratio, 1.5; P = .005) counts were independently associated with severe adult-onset disease.

CONCLUSION:

The majority of patients with severe adult-onset asthma are nonatopic and have persistent eosinophilic airway inflammation. This suggests that severe adult-onset asthma has a distinct underlying mechanism compared with milder disease.

Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Asthma; BMI; Body mass index; Feno; Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide; OR; Odds ratio; adult onset; eosinophilia; sinus disease

PMID:
23806634
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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