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J Int Med Res. 2013 Aug;41(4):1342-9. doi: 10.1177/0300060513487649. Epub 2013 Jun 26.

Comparison of cardiac output derived from FloTrac™/Vigileo™ and impedance cardiography during major abdominal surgery.

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  • 1Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University, Goyang, Republic of Korea.



Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a noninvasive technique that provides reasonably accurate measurements of cardiac output, but the usefulness of ICG in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery has not been validated.


Cardiac output was measured while patients underwent open gastrectomy using an ICG monitor (niccomo™; ICG-CO); the results were compared with those measured using a FloTrac™/Vigileo™ monitor (Flo-CO), which measures cardiac output by analysing the arterial waveform. Data collection commenced at the beginning of anaesthetic induction and continued until the patient was awake. Data were compared using the Bland-Altman analysis, and the clinical significance of the difference between the two methods was evaluated by calculating the percentage error (%).


Eleven patients were monitored during surgery. The bias of the Flo-CO and ICG-CO values was -0.45 l/min. The upper and lower limits of agreement were 0.96 l/min and -1.85 l/min, respectively. The percentage error was 28.5%. Electrocautery induced interference that transiently impaired the performance of the ICG monitor.


ICG provided useful information in evaluating the cardiac output of patients during abdominal surgery.


niccomo™; Cardiac output; FloTrac™/Vigileo™; continuous haemodynamic monitoring; impedance cardiography

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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