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Asian J Sports Med. 2013 Jun;4(2):85-100. Epub 2013 Feb 12.

Patellofemoral pain syndrome and modifiable intrinsic risk factors; how to assess and address?

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  • 1Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; Department of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a very common disorder of the knee. Due to multiple forces influencing the patellofemoral joint, clinical management of this ailment is particularly intricate. Patellofemoral pain syndrome has a multifactorial nature and multiple parameters have been proposed as potential risk factors, classified as intrinsic or extrinsic. Some of the intrinsic risk factors are modifiable and may be approached in treatment. A number of modifiable risk factors have been suggested, including quadriceps weakness, tightness of hamstring, iliopsoas and gastrosoleus muscles, hip muscles dysfunction, foot overpronation, tightness of iliotibial band, generalised joint laxity, limb length discrepancy, patellar malalignment and hypermobility. In general, the routine approach of physicians to this problem does not include assessment and modification of these risk factors and therefore, it may negatively affect the management outcomes. Changing this approach necessitates an easy and practical protocol for assessment of modifiable risk factors and effective and feasible measures to address them. In this review, we aimed to introduce assessment and intervention packages appropriate for this purpose.


Anterior Knee Pain; Assessment; Exercise; Management; Predisposing Factor

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