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Anal Chem. 2013 Aug 6;85(15):7434-40. doi: 10.1021/ac401367b. Epub 2013 Jul 10.

Oxazinoindolines as fluorescent H+ turn-on chromoionophores for optical and electrochemical ion sensors.

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  • 1Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Abstract

We propose here a new class of fluorescent H(+) turn-on oxazinoindoline (Ox) dyes as chromoionophores suitable for the development of polymeric ion-selective membranes. Through rational design, oxazinoindolines with varying basicities and tunable absorption bands that extend to the near-infrared region were prepared. The basicities of the compounds were evaluated by potentiometry and fluorescence spectroscopy. By comparing the potentiometric lower detection limit with chromoionophore I (pKa = 14.80 ± 0.03 in PVC-NPOE), pKa values were determined for Ox Y, Ox R, and Ox B to be 9.80 ± 0.03, 12.85 ± 0.03, and 12.95 ± 0.03, respectively. Unlike conventional pH indicators that involve only a protonated and deprotonated form, a third species, arising from the thermal isomerization of the Ox compounds in polar solvents, may influence the overall protonation equilibrium. Interestingly, this results in an apparent pKa increase in the fluorescence mode when more polar PVC-NPOE membranes were utilized. The isomerization is suppressed in nonpolar PVC-DOS membranes. Na(+)-selective optical sensors were successfully prepared using the Ox dyes as an early application of the compounds in ion-selective optical sensors. The compounds were also successfully evaluated in a dynamic electrochemistry (chronopotentiometry) sensing mode for the detection of total alkalinity.

PMID:
23796041
[PubMed]
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