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Opt Express. 2013 Jun 17;21(12):13958-68. doi: 10.1364/OE.21.013958.

CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide.

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  • 1Department of of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.


We present the design, fabrication and characterization of athermal nano-photonic silicon ring modulators. The athermalization method employs compensation of the silicon core thermo-optic contribution with that from the amorphous titanium dioxide (a-TiO(2)) overcladding with a negative thermo-optic coefficient. We developed a new CMOS-compatible fabrication process involving low temperature RF magnetron sputtering of high-density and low-loss a-TiO(2) that can withstand subsequent elevated-temperature CMOS processes. Silicon ring resonators with 275 nm wide rib waveguide clad with a-TiO(2) showed near complete athermalization and moderate optical losses. Small-signal testing of the micro-resonator modulators showed high extinction ratio and gigahertz bandwidth.

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