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J Pediatr Urol. 2013 Dec;9(6 Pt B):1198-203. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2013.05.011. Epub 2013 Jun 17.

The feasibility of robotic urologic surgery in infants and toddlers.

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  • 1The Robotic Surgery, Research and Training Center and the Department of Urology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.



To determine the feasibility and safety of performing robotic-assisted laparoscopic urological surgery (RALS) in infants and young children, highlighting technical challenges posed by the smaller body size and their potential solutions.


We retrospectively reviewed perioperative records of all patients less than 3 years of age who underwent RALS at our institution between January 2006 and October 2012. Intraoperative data included difficulties with the robotic instruments or surgical procedure. Post-operative data included length of hospital stay and any complications.


A total of 65 children less than 3 years underwent RALS. The average patient age was 1.6 years ± 0.7, with 14 patients under 1 year of age. Median patient weight was 11.6 kg ± 2.5 kg. Mean operative time was 153.3 ± 57 min. No conversions to open technique or intra-operative complications were reported. A total of 12 post-operative complications were identified after a mean follow-up of 13.6 months: 7 early complications and 5 late complications. Smaller children did not have more complications than larger children.


There are inherent challenges with performing RALS in infants and young children. However, they may be overcome with specific technical maneuvers and through understanding of the limitations of the robotic system.

Copyright © 2013 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


BIS; Complications; Infants; PEEP; RALS; Robotic; Urological; bispectral index monitor; peak end expiratory pressure; robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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