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Ergonomics. 2013;56(8):1336-44. doi: 10.1080/00140139.2013.805251. Epub 2013 Jun 18.

Biomechanics and performance when using a standard and a vertical computer mouse.

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  • 1a Department of Physical Therapy , University of Franca , Franca , Brazil.



to compare the biomechanics and performance while using a vertical computer mouse (VM) and a standard mouse (SM).


muscle activation (electromyography), forearm movements (electrogoniometers), performance (Fitts' Law test) and satisfaction (questionnaire) of 16 subjects were evaluated.


there were significant differences between the VM and the SM, respectively, on motion (28° vs. 42° pronation, p = 0.001; 5° ulnar vs. 7° radial deviation, p = 0.016) and muscle activity (13% vs. 16% of extensor carpi activity, p = 0.006; 10% vs. 13% extensor digitorum activity, p = 0.001). VM user satisfaction was good (68); however, time to target was longer (4.2 vs. 3.4 s, p < 0.001).


using the VM decreased wrist pronation and lowered wrist extensor muscle activity, but additional training and familiarisation time may be required to improve user performance.


Using a vertical mouse can decrease the exposure to biomechanical risk factors for computer mouse use-related musculoskeletal disorders. Using a vertical computer mouse resulted in less wrist pronation and lower wrist extensor muscle activity. But, training and familiarisation are required.

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