Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Br J Nurs. 2013 May 9-22;22(9):S26, S28-33.

Painful bladder syndrome and interstitial cystitis: treatment options.

Author information

  • 1Norfolk & Norwich University Hospital, UK.


Painful bladder syndrome (PBS) and interstitial cystitis (IC) are associated with bladder pain, increased urinary frequency, urgency and reduced quality of life. The cause is still unknown, although there are several possible hypotheses. PBS/IC may significantly impact all areas of a patient's life as they try to manage their symptoms. Treatment options usually involve diet and fluid modifications, oral medications, intravesical therapy or as a last resort, surgery. The bladder is protected by a mucous layer known as the GAG layer and is thought to protect the underlying urothelium from coming into contact with potassium ions and other irritants contained in urine. Due to research suggesting that sufferers of PBS/IC have dysfunctional GAG layers, there is rationale for intravesical GAG replacement therapy as a treatment option in reducing PBS/IC symptoms such as pain, frequency and urgency. Early diagnosis and treatment may lead to better long-term outcomes.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk