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Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Sep;59:137-44. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.05.044. Epub 2013 Jun 5.

L-Leucine and L-isoleucine enhance growth of BBN-induced urothelial tumors in the rat bladder by modulating expression of amino acid transporters and tumorigenesis-associated genes.

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  • 1Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Abeno-ku, Osaka, Japan.


We investigated the underlying mechanisms of L-leucine and L-isoleucine mediated promotion of bladder carcinogenesis using an initiation-promotion model. Rats were administered N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine for 4 weeks and then fed AIN-93G basal diet or diet supplemented with L-leucine or L-isoleucine for 8 weeks followed by the basal diet for another 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, week 20, there was a significant elevation of papillary and nodular (PN) hyperplasia multiplicity in the amino acid groups. L-Leucine and L-isoleucine transporters were up-regulated in PN hyperplasias and/or bladder tumors compared with concomitant normal-appearing bladder urothelium at weeks 12 and/or 20 in all groups. In addition, in normal-appearing bladder urothelium, significantly increased mRNA levels of y+LAT1, LAT2, LAT4, and 4F2hc were observed in the amino acid groups compared with the BBN control group at both weeks 12 and 20, and increased mRNA levels of LAT1 were observed at week 20. Furthermore, up-regulation of TNF-α, c-fos, β-catenin, p53, p21(Cip1/WAF1), cdk4, cyclin D1 and caspase 3 in the amino acid groups was detected in normal-appearing bladder urothelium. Overall, our results indicate that supplementation with l-leucine or l-isoleucine enhanced growth of bladder urothelial tumors by triggering expression of amino acid transporters and tumorigenesis-associated genes.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Amino acid transporters; Tumorigenesis-associated genes; l-isoleucine; l-leucine

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