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J Proteomics. 2013 Aug 26;89:112-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.05.028. Epub 2013 Jun 4.

Snake venomics of Lachesis muta rhombeata and genus-wide antivenomics assessment of the paraspecific immunoreactivity of two antivenoms evidence the high compositional and immunological conservation across Lachesis.

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  • 1Laboratorio de Venómica y Proteinómica Estructural, Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, C.S.I.C., Valencia, Spain.


We report the proteomic analysis of the Atlantic bushmaster, Lachesis muta rhombeata, from Brazil. Along with previous characterization of the venom proteomes of L. stenophrys (Costa Rica), L. melanocephala (Costa Rica), L. acrochorda (Colombia), and L. muta muta (Bolivia), the present study provides the first overview of the composition and distribution of venom proteins across this wide-ranging genus, and highlights the remarkable similar compositional and pharmacological profiles across Lachesis venoms. The paraspecificity of two antivenoms, produced at Instituto Vital Brazil (Brazil) and Instituto Clodomiro Picado (Costa Rica) using different conspecific taxa in the immunization mixtures, was assessed using genus-wide comparative antivenomics. This study confirms that the proteomic similarity among Lachesis sp. venoms is mirrored in their high immunological conservation across the genus. The clinical and therapeutic consequences of genus-wide venomics and antivenomics investigations of Lachesis venoms are discussed.


The proteomics characterization of L. m. rhombeata venom completes the overview of Lachesis venom proteomes and confirms the remarkable toxin profile conservation across the five clades of this wide-ranging genus. Genus-wide antivenomics showed that two antivenoms, produced against L. stenophrys or L. m. rhombeata, exhibit paraspecificity towards all other congeneric venoms. Our venomics study shows that, despite the broad geographic distribution of the genus, monospecific antivenoms may achieve clinical coverage for any Lachesis sp. envenoming.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Antivenomics; Genus Lachesis; Lachesis muta rhombeata; Mass spectrometry; Snake venomics

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