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Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 Jun;19(6):932-7. doi: 10.3201/eid1906.121805.

Haemophilus influenzae serotype a invasive disease, Alaska, USA, 1983-2011.

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  • 1Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska 99507, USA. zwa8@cdc.gov

Abstract

Before introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines, rates of Hib disease in Alaska's indigenous people were among the highest in the world. Vaccination reduced rates dramatically; however, invasive H. influenzae type a (Hia) disease has emerged. Cases of invasive disease were identified through Alaska statewide surveillance during 1983-2011. Of 866 isolates analyzed for serotype, 32 (4%) were Hia. No Hia disease was identified before 2002; 32 cases occurred during 2002-2011 (p<0.001). Median age of case-patients was 0.7 years; 3 infants died. Incidence of Hia infection (2002-2011) among children <5 years was 5.4/100,000; 27 cases occurred in Alaska Native children (18/100,000) versus 2 cases in non-Native children (0.5/100,000) (risk ratio = 36, p<0.001). From 12/2009 to 12/2011, 15 cases of Hia disease occurred in southwestern Alaska (in children <5 years, rate = 204/100,000). Since introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine, Hia infection has become a major invasive bacterial disease in Alaska Native children.

KEYWORDS:

Alaska; Alaska Native people; H. influenzae; Haemophilus influenzae; Hia; Hib; United States; bacteremia; bacteria; cellulitis; coccobacillus; epiglottitis; invasive disease; meningitis; otitis media; pericarditis; pneumonia; septic arthritis

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