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Indian J Virol. 2012 Jun;23(1):36-8. doi: 10.1007/s13337-011-0055-y. Epub 2012 Jan 10.

Low Level of Cross-Reactive Antibodies to Pandemic Influenza (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Humans in Pre-Pandemic Period in Maharashtra, India.

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  • 1National Institute of Virology (NIV)-Microbial Containment Complex (MCC), 130/1, Sus Road, Pashan, Pune, 411021 India.


In India, the first outbreak of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1pdm) was reported from Panchgani, Maharashtra, in June 2009. Studies from several countries have revealed different levels of pre-existing immunity to H1N1pdm 2009 in various age groups. This study was undertaken using age-stratified pre-pandemic human sera to understand baseline cross-reactivity of antibodies against H1N1pdm. Using cut off antibody titers 20 and 40, overall cross-reactivity was 2.1 and 0.9% respectively by microneutralization assay; 1.2% and 0.7% by haemagglutination inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed higher baseline antibodies and cross-reactive antibodies in the 0-19 age group whereas the elderly age group (≥60) showed no cross-reactivity to H1N1pdm. The higher baseline and cross-reactive antibodies in 0-19 years age group could be because of higher positivity to seasonal H1N1 in that age group. Overall, low level of cross-reactive antibodies to H1N1pdm virus were found in humans in pre-pandemic period in Maharashtra, India.


Cross-reactive antibodies; Hemagglutination inhibition assay; Microneutralization assay; Pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009

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