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J Radiat Res. 2013 Nov 1;54(6):1146-52. doi: 10.1093/jrr/rrt072. Epub 2013 May 31.

Inverse planning for combination of intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer.

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  • 1Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.


The main purpose of this study was to compare three different treatment plans for locally advanced cervical cancer: (i) the inverse-planning simulated annealing (IPSA) plan for combination brachytherapy (BT) of interstitial and intracavitary brachytherapy, (ii) manual optimization based on the Manchester system for combination-BT, and (iii) the conventional Manchester system using only tandem and ovoids. This was a retrospective study of 25 consecutive implants. The high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) and organs at risk were defined according to the GEC-ESTRO Working Group definitions. A dose of 6 Gy was prescribed. The uniform cost function for dose constraints was applied to all IPSA-generated plans. The coverage of the HR-CTV by IPSA for combination-BT was equivalent to that of manual optimization, and was better than that of the Manchester system using only tandem and ovoids. The mean V100 achieved by IPSA for combination-BT, manual optimization and Manchester was 96 ± 3.7%, 95 ± 5.5% and 80 ± 13.4%, respectively. The mean D100 was 483 ± 80, 487 ± 97 and 335 ± 119 cGy, respectively. The mean D90 was 677 ± 61, 681 ± 88 and 513 ± 150 cGy, respectively. IPSA resulted in significant reductions of the doses to the rectum (IPSA D2cm(3): 408 ± 71 cGy vs manual optimization D2cm(3): 485 ± 105 cGy; P = 0.03) and the bladder (IPSA D2cm(3): 452 ± 60 cGy vs manual optimization D2cm(3): 583 ± 113 cGy; P < 0.0001). In conclusion, combination-BT achieved better tumor coverage, and plans using IPSA provided significant sparing of normal tissues without compromising CTV coverage.


HDR; IPSA; cervical cancer; combination brachytherapy; optimize

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