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Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013 Sep;28(5):245-54. doi: 10.1097/YIC.0b013e328362c89f.

Kinase gene haplotypes and gene-gene interactions in the Ras-Raf-MAPK signaling pathway: association with antidepressant remission.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Huai'an No. 3 People's Hospital, Huai'an, Jiangsu Province, China. congjiewang88@yahoo.com.cn

Abstract

Signal transduction has been reported to be involved in antidepressant treatment outcomes; however, its mechanisms remain unclear. The aims of this study were to explore the associations between antidepressant remission and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), haplotypes, and gene-gene interactions in the Ras-Raf-MAPK intracellular signaling pathway. A total of 302 inpatients with major depressive disorder (DSM-IV Axis I) were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale before and after 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment to determine the remission rate in the samples. Twenty-four SNPs at five kinase genes (Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK-RSK), which are a part of the Ras-Raf-MAPK signaling pathway, were identified to investigate a genetic association with antidepressant drug outcome. Correlations between 24 SNPs at the five kinase genes in the Ras-Raf-MAPK signaling pathway and antidepressant drug outcome were not found. The percentage of the CCAGA haplotype that RSK(2/3/4)-RSKL(1/2) gene loci SNPs constructed was markedly lower in the remitter group when compared with the nonremitter group in female depressed patients (P=0.04), whereas the proportion of AAAGGG haplotype that RSK(2/3/4)-RSKL(1/2) gene loci SNPs constructed in the remitter group was significantly greater than that in the nonremitter group in male patients (P=0.02). In addition, MEK1 (rs28730804) and RSK3 (rs2229712) in the Ras-Raf-MAPK signaling pathway showed a gene-gene interaction that affected antidepressant drug outcome in female depressed patients (P=0.041). Although this study did not find that SNPs at the five kinase genes in the Ras-Raf-MAPK signaling pathway are important markers for antidepressant outcome, certain haplotypes that SNPs at the RSK(2/3/4)-RSKL(1/2) gene constructed may be important markers for antidepressant drug efficacy. We observed a gene-gene interaction in this signaling pathway that influenced antidepressant efficacy in female depressed patients. Therefore, it is likely that in female depressed patients, different haplotypes and gene-gene interaction in the Ras-Raf-MAPK signaling pathway are involved in mediating the pharmacological action of an antidepressant, and eventually influence antidepressant efficacy.

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