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Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2013 Jul;15(7):332. doi: 10.1007/s11894-013-0332-6.

Approach to hemorrhoids.

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  • 1Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 2 Prannok Road, Bangkok Noi, Bangkok, 10700, Thailand.


Hemorrhoids are a very common anorectal disorder defined as the symptomatic enlargement and abnormally downward displacement of anal cushions. The current pathophysiologies of hemorrhoids include the degenerative change of supportive tissue within the anal cushions, vascular hyperplasia, and hyperperfusion of hemorrhoidal plexus. Low-grade hemorrhoids are easily and effectively treated with dietary and lifestyle modification, medical intervention, and some office-based procedures. An operation is usually indicated in symptomatic high-grade and/or complicated hemorrhoids. Whilst hemorrhoidectomy has been the mainstay of surgical treatment, more recently other approaches have been employed including Ligasure hemorrhoidectomy, stapled hemorrhoidopexy, and doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation. Post-procedural pain and disease recurrence remain the most challenging problems in the treatment of hemorrhoids. This article deals with modern approaches to hemorrhoids based on the latest evidence and reviews of the literature. The management of hemorrhoids in complicated situations is also discussed.

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