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Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013 Nov;7(6):1218-26. doi: 10.1111/irv.12124. Epub 2013 May 26.

Intranasal influenza vaccination using a new synthetic mucosal adjuvant SF-10: induction of potent local and systemic immunity with balanced Th1 and Th2 responses.

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  • 1Division of Enzyme Chemistry, Institute for Enzyme Research, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima, Japan.



We found previously that bovine pulmonary Surfacten® used in newborns with acute respiratory distress syndrome is a safe and efficacious antigen vehicle for intranasal vaccination.


The objective of this study was to industrially produce a synthetic adjuvant mimicking Surfacten® for clinical use without risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy.


We selected three Surfacten lipids and surfactant protein (SP)-C as essential constituents for adjuvanticity. For replacement of the hydrophobic SP-C, we synthesized SP-related peptides and analyzed their adjuvanticity. We evaluated lyophilization to replace sonication for the binding of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) to the synthetic adjuvant. We also added a carboxy vinyl polymer (CVP) to the synthetic adjuvant and named the mixture as SF-10 adjuvant. HA combined with SF-10 was administered intranasally to mice, and induction of nasal-wash HA-specific secretory IgA (s-IgA) and serum IgG with Th1-/Th2-type cytokine responses in nasal cavity and virus challenge test were assessed.


Intranasal immunization with HA-SF-10 induced significantly higher levels of anti-HA-specific nasal-wash s-IgA and serum IgG than those induced by HA-poly(I:C), a reported potent mucosal vaccine, and provided highly efficient protection against lethal doses of virus challenge in mice. Anti-HA-specific serum IgG levels induced by HA-SF-10 were almost equivalent to those induced by subcutaneous immunization of HA twice. Intranasal administration of HA-SF-10 induced balanced anti-HA-specific IgG1 and IgG2a in sera and IFN-γ- and IL-4-producing lymphocytes in nasal cavity without any induction of anti-HA IgE. The results suggest that HA-SF-10 is a promising nasal influenza vaccine and that SF-10 can be supplied in large quantities commercially.

© 2013 The authors. Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Pulmonary surfactant; Th1/Th2 responses; influenza vaccine; nasal vaccination; synthetic mucosal adjuvant

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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